Education and Ethnic Groups in Britain

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I have previously reported on the annual education statistics in Britain (e.g. here), so I will give an update for 2006-07. Figures have just been published for performance at the GCSE examinations, taken by most children at age 16. An official press release is here. Performance by children of all ethnic groups continues to improve (as measured by examination grades). The press release highlights the fact that the gap between ethnic groups is narrowing. Actually, this is not strictly true. The ‘narrowing’ is specifically between children of Black (Caribbean or African) origin and the (mainly White) average. Other ‘gaps’ are constant or widening. Children of Pakistani origin have the lowest rate of improvement, and have now been overtaken by Black Africans.

I won’t discuss the vexed question whether improvement in examination results actually indicates any improvement in education. But I guess (unless anyone knows reasons to the contrary) that the changes in differentials between ethnic groups are real and not artificial; for example, I can’t see any reason why the testing system should be biased against Pakistanis but not Bangladeshis.

Added on 1 December: In comments the point has been made that a general rising trend will tend to suppress differentials. In general this is a good point, but as I mentioned in my original post, not all of the gaps are narrowing. The pattern is more complex. Also, the (mainly White) average is still nowhere near the ceiling. It has also been suggested that the narrowing gap between Black African and Black Caribbean and White children could be due to increasing proportions of mixed-race children. This should not be the case. The statistics classify the various mixed-race groups separately, so provided the children are correctly classified this should not be a problem. Finally, I should warn against taking these results as indicators of IQ. No doubt there is some correlation with IQ, but it can hardly be very close, as girls have much better GCSE results than boys despite similar IQ.

I would suggest that before making further comments readers should consult the original statistics. Go here, click on the link marked ‘EXCEL’, then go to Table 8 for the GCSE figures. (If you don’t have an Excel reader there are free downloads on the web.)

59 Comments

  1. are closing of gaps necessarily true? i mean, the grade inflation in the uk is shocking, and ongoing…whereas triple As at A-levels used to guarantee an oxbridge place in the good old days, 10% get that now. For instance, lowering the demands for pass would superficially close the black-white gap…

  2. I find a metric that continually reports widespread improvement to be questionable at best.

  3. I would guess certain pupils would choose ‘cultural’ courses than say maths. 
    One should compare results with income also.Anybody got the account numbers for this sample :)

  4. Your quote: 
    “The proportion of children getting ‘good’ GCSE’s in key subjects like English and mathematics has actually fallen slightly.” 
     
    Please, pay no attention to the man behind the curtain.  
     
    Public education authorities in the U.S. have also worked hard to fudge and cheapen the statistics.

  5. As BW alludes to, the phenomenon of easier tests artificially lessening the gap between higher performing populations and less performing ones is VERY real, and can also be very dramatic. 
     
    La Griffe du Lion has one or two excellent pieces on this.

  6. Whats most remarkable is the huge difference in performance between white and chinese students in the UK. The difference between native whites (59.5% achieving those grades) and black african students (55.6%) is almost negligible compared to the difference between white and chinese students (over 80%).

  7. “As BW alludes to, the phenomenon of easier tests artificially lessening the gap between higher performing populations and less performing ones is VERY real, and can also be very dramatic.” 
     
    So why haven’t white students in the UK lessened the gap between them and the chinese (or the indians)? Easier tests should inflate the grades of low-performing white students as well. Right?

  8. ‘Easier tests’ might explain some of the changes, but as I made clear (I hoped) in my brief post, it can hardly explain one group (Black Africans) overtaking another (Pakistanis). 
     
    Saul has pointed out another good example. 
     
    I agree with the comment that the choice of subjects may have something to do with it. I haven’t looked in detail at the statistics (which are linked in the Press Notice). 
     
    It is not clear whether tests have been made ‘easier’. I believe the amount of coursework (basically homework assessed by teachers) included in the results has actually been reduced, so the scope for fiddling the results may be less than before.

  9. What I find interesting is: 
     
    Chinese, pupils of Mixed White and Asian heritage, Irish and Indian pupils consistently achieved above the national average across Key Stage1, Key stage 2 and Key Stage 4. For example, over 80% of Chinese pupils, over 70% of Indian pupils and over two thirds of Mixed White and Asian pupils achieved 5+A*-C grades at GCSE and equivalent at the end of Key Stage 4. Irish pupils also achieved highly, with over 60% of pupils achieving 5+A*-C. This compares with the average of 59% across all ethnic groups. 
     
    Why are the Irish results higher than the White average. Is there any breakdown for Welsh, Scottish or English?

  10. ‘Easier tests’ might explain some of the changes, but as I made clear (I hoped) in my brief post, it can hardly explain one group (Black Africans) overtaking another (Pakistanis). 
     
    Are all the tests public examination type tests, or is there a subjective grading component in any of them?

  11. Not a Julian Simon optimist, eh Caledonian?

  12. The GCSE are public examinations.

  13. are closing of gaps necessarily true? 
     
    I would guess certain pupils would choose ‘cultural’ courses than say maths. 
     
    As BW alludes to, the phenomenon of easier tests artificially lessening the gap between higher performing populations and less performing ones is VERY real, and can also be very dramatic. 
     
    It seems any evidence of blacks performing well or showing improvements must always be explained away. it can’t happen, y’know. ’cause they have low IQ.

  14. It would be great to have GC opinion on this :)

  15. “Are all the tests public examination type tests, or is there a subjective grading component in any of them?” 
     
    Subject to correction by teachers or other experts, I think: 
     
    - the majority of the tests are marked by external examiners. A minority of marks are based on ‘coursework’, marked by teachers from the schools concerned but with sample checks by external referees 
     
    - some of the marking is more ‘objective’ than others. E.g. arithmetic has right and wrong answers, but literary appreciation has a subjective element.  
     
    So there is some possibility of marking bias affecting the results. But it would have to be a very peculiar form of bias to produce the pattern of widening or narrowing gaps observed. 
     
    Incidentally, I don’t know whether the examiners know the names of the children concerned, which could be an indicator of ethnic differences. If they do, it could be a partial explanation. But how many examiners would know the difference, if any, between Pakistani and Bangladeshi names? I certainly don’t.

  16. My resident expert (Baby Sandgroper) informs me that names are not known to the examiners – the candidate enters an identification number on the paper. She took the GCSE less than 6 months ago, so I’ll take her word for it. 
     
    There is also an appeal process – anyone who thinks they have been unfairly marked can (for a fee) have the paper re-marked by another examiner. This is not something to invoke lightly because, in addition to the fee, marks can be adjusted down as well as up.

  17. BBC Radio’s File on 4 reported earlier in the year that some schools have found a way to improve their results by teaching GNVQs, which are deemed equivalent to 4 GCSEs. These were intended for FE colleges (roughly equivalent to community college – the ‘V’ stands for ‘Vocational’) and are assessed on a series of practical modules rather than a single end-of-course exam. The programme suggested that passing enough modules to get a GNVQ in Computing is a lot easier than getting a pass in, say, Maths, and 3 other individual GCSE subjects. 
    Unsurprisingly, no mention was made of how this affects the relative results of different ethnic groups. Not much, I’d guess.

  18. Sandgroper: many thanks for the inside info.

  19. Sandgroper is correct that candidates are identified by numbers not names, race or ethnics for actual marking purposes, however I would be very wary of statics suggesting improvements (closing of gaps, etc.) between races since the parameters are so widespread and explanations for the variations so numerous that I would suspect political tampering for cosmetic purposes. 
     
    Whilst from a statical study point of view, such results would be revealing or useful if obtained in a laboratory environment where all parameters such as housing, family background, social deprivation / motivation were equal, but since they are not, the results can be varied for such numerous reasons to be of little analytical value.

  20. such results would be revealing or useful if obtained in a laboratory environment where all parameters such as housing, family background, social deprivation / motivation were equal, but since they are not, the results can be varied for such numerous reasons to be of little analytical value.“ 
     
    Considering that black africans in the UK are handicapped in all these parameters relative to the white natives, isnt it all the more remarkable that they tested about the same as whites?  
     
    I guess your only recourse now is to cling to conspiracy theories such as “political tampering”.

  21. Considering that black africans in the UK are handicapped in all these parameters relative to the white natives, isnt it all the more remarkable that they tested about the same as whites?  
     
    I guess your only recourse now is to cling to conspiracy theories such as “political tampering”.
     
     
    Or you could just accept these statistics as one data point among many and move on…

  22. Whilst from a statical study point of view, such results would be revealing or useful if obtained in a laboratory environment where all parameters such as housing, family background, social deprivation / motivation were equal, but since they are not, the results can be varied for such numerous reasons to be of little analytical value. 
     
    this is the exact sort of argument that those who would deny the validity of between group differences use. in any case, some of the comments here illustrate that tunnel vision and selective reading isn’t a monopoly of any camp.

  23. in any case, some of the comments here illustrate that tunnel vision and selective reading isn’t a monopoly of any camp. 
     
    amen

  24. Here are a couple of links to data on ethnic group test scores in England. 
     
    http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/DCSF-RR002.pdf 
     
    http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000708/SFR04_2007Tables.xls 
     
    The first link is to a UK government research study on why some ethnic groups underperform, notice that nowhere will you find mention of cognitive ability or IQ but at one point the writer recommends that 14 year olds in the KS3 age group be given a “reasoning” test to see if they are really at the ability level that their teacher has labeled them at. In England the teachers separate the students into different tiers and the smarter kids take a harder test than the dumber kids. In order to score at the highest level a student needs to be designated into the higher tier prior to the test taking date. In the USA most states have a single test that is given to all public school students regardless of their ability levels.

  25. About half of ‘black’ children in England have British mothers. This is not the case with South Asian minority groups. Over time, this factor alone would tend to converge the ‘black’ group to the British mean.

  26. About half of ‘black’ children in England have British mothers.  
     
    Do you mean black African children? If so, do you have data to support this?

  27. Over time, this factor alone would tend to converge the ‘black’ group to the British mean. 
     
    not necessarily if the admixture is assortative based on class.

  28. a note for readers, a critique of a citeless comment is generally aided by an offering of genuine statistics. e.g., 
     
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Mixed 
    People of mixed race made up 1.2% of the UK population as of the 2001 census or 677,117 people. The most common mixed race group is White/Black Caribbean with 266,300 people, followed by White/Asian at 189,000 people and then White/Black African with 101,400 people. 
     
    in any case, are we sure that mixed people are included within numbers for minorities? this is american practice, but seems less common in the UK, where the census has a separate ‘mixed’ category in the results. the press release (which i hope everyone who commented on this thread read!) actually specifically refers to ‘mixed asian white’ pupils, so it seems they weren’t included with asians. 
     
    some GNXP threads actually result in really good analysis of data. this one has been characterized by armchair speculation and sniping. how edifying.

  29. “This is the exact sort of argument that those who would deny the validity of between group differences use” – doesn’t mean that it is any less true. 
     
    I would be more inclined to accept data that is related to class/wealth rather than just race here, since I suspect that would show a more realistic difference. The fact that people from deprived areas are generally less academically able isn’t exactly rocket science. 
     
    As for “People of mixed race made up 1.2% of the UK population as of the 2001 census or 677,117 people,” how do you genuine define mixed, since most populations are well and truly mixed going back decades?

  30. Re mixed-race groups: if you go to the Excel tables linked in the Education Department press release, you will see that the various mixed groups (White/Black Caribbean, etc) are separately itemised, distinct from the ‘unmixed’ groups. The figures quoted for ‘Black Caribbean’, ‘Black African’, etc, should therefore not be much affected by mixture. Table 8 has the GCSE data.

  31. They even have a separate group for Irish Travellers, which I thought was pretty cool.

  32. Of course one difficulty of comparing the results between different ethnic groups is that each ethnic group has a different percentage of participation in the examination. In the case of black africans versus pakistanis this could well be the case. In other words even if their capabilities were the same if 80% of Pakistanis take the test versus 50% of black africans, one would expect the results to be worse for the pakistanis.

  33. What grounds do you have for claiming “this could well be the case”?  
     
    Any evidence that a lower % of students of Bangladeshi ancestry sit for the GCSE than students of Pakistani ancestry, for example? 
     
    Any reason to suppose that a lower % of students of African ancestry sit the GCSE now than in the past?

  34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Certificate_of_Secondary_Education 
     
    Note: “it is normal for at least English, Mathematics and Science to be studied to GCSE level.”

  35. I still cannot understand the Pakistani-Bangladeshi gap. Immigration patterns might explain the (narrowing) difference between Caribbeans and Africans. But the Pakistanis and Bangladeshis?

  36. “Of course one difficulty of comparing the results between different ethnic groups is that each ethnic group has a different percentage of participation in the examination. In the case of black africans versus pakistanis this could well be the case.” 
     
    - Unless the statistics are even more misleading than most official statistics, the base for the calculation of percentages is the entire eligible age group. The only major omission (mentioned in the notes to the main report), is that the figures are confined to state schools (including state-funded religious schools). They therefore exclude 10% or so of the population (in this age group) in private schools. This could have some distorting effect on the ethnic breakdown, but probably not very much as might be expected. The private schools in England are by no means all-white. Middle-class parents of all ethnic groups use private schools if they can afford it. 
     
    I don’t have a good explanation for the Pakistani-Bangladeshi difference. It may be partly geographical: many Pakistanis live in very concentrated areas of northern England and the children go to schools with hardly any non-Pakistani pupils. Bangladeshis live mainly in London and go to more mixed schools, I think. But this is just speculation.

  37. Re mixed-race groups: if you go to the Excel tables linked in the Education Department press release, you will see that the various mixed groups (White/Black Caribbean, etc) are separately itemised, distinct from the ‘unmixed’ groups. The figures quoted for ‘Black Caribbean’, ‘Black African’, etc, should therefore not be much affected by mixture. 
     
    Both groups would still become ‘whiter’ over time, i.e., white/mixed-race offspring would tend to be classified as mixed-race and mixed-race/black offspring would tend to be classified as black. The Excel document does not describe the methodology for ethnic classification, although I suspect it’s self-report. 
     
    Another point: since the mixed-race category was introduced only in 2003, it is probably unrealistic to infer any trends over time (since the ethnic categories are not comparable).

  38. white/mixed-race offspring would tend to be classified as mixed-race and mixed-race/black offspring would tend to be classified as black. The Excel document does not describe the methodology for ethnic classification, although I suspect it’s self-report. 
     
    if it doesn’t report methodology what basis do you have for you assumption about categorizations? it sounds reasonable enough, but that doesn’t mean it’s not concocted out of your own hunches. your original assumption was obviously wrong since you didn’t read the press release and note that mixed asian/white were already in a separate category. there’s no need for more model building to explain on the margins, obviously there needs to be more and better data.

  39. There is a lot of detail on the classification system in various Education Department reports, e.g. a report on the results of the 2003 reclassification. 
     
    The classification of pupils is made by the school authorities, but they are required to check it with the parents and amend it if asked to. 
     
    Following the creation of the ‘mixed’ categories in 2003, the Department checked what had happened. According to the report ‘For … Black African pupils the opportunity to be classified as of mixed background made little difference… However, substantial proportions of Black Caribbean (9.1%), Other Black (19.9%) and Other Ethnic Background pupils (12.3%) moved to Mixed White and Black Caribbean’. 
     
    ‘Black Caribbean’ figures will therefore not be strictly comparable before and after 2003, but as the figures in the Press Notice all relate to trends since 2003 (perhaps for this very reason!), this doesn’t matter much. 
     
    Peter Frost may be right to say that the ‘Black’ and ‘Mixed’ categories will become ‘whiter’ over time, but not necessarily. Britain has never adhered to the ‘one drop’ philosophy, and someone with only a small proportion (less than a quarter) of non-white ancestry will probably be classified as white.

  40. …I should add that although the school makes the ethnic classification, they usually obtain information first either from the parents or the children themselves. Then they check with the parents again. So there is an element of self-classification.

  41. Razib, 
     
    No, I didn’t check out the Excel document. I knew that people of mixed-race used to be classified as ‘black’ so I assumed that this was still the case. I was wrong. 
     
    Britain never did have the ‘one-drop rule’ (but neither did most of North America). The usual practice, however, has been to identify anyone with visible black ancestry as ‘non-white’ or even ‘black’. I can think of several ‘black’ entertainers in Britain who, in fact, are only half-black. 
     
    Again, given the volatility of these ethnic categories and given the fact that they have been in place only since 2003, how statistically significant could this improvement in test scores be?

  42. Peter Frost have you lived in England?! Anyone can tell by looking at Leona Lewis that she is mixed black and white. It is VERY common to describe mixed people as mixed in the UK.  
     
    I did my GCSEs in Africa, got 8 A’s, then got a full scholarship to an American college (other 8 A’s students at my high school went to Harvard, Yale etc.). Africans performing well in GCSEs is nothing new or special. We do it all the time in my country. In fact 10 As and 11 As are now the “good” grades.  
     
    GCSEs are also very private, no one will ever know whose paper they’re marking, and you will never be graded by your own teachers.  
     
    Why the UK has such strange GCSE results? It’ll probably come down to socioeconomic status and parents’ education levels when we look enough into it.  
     
    Are people here aware that Indians far outperform Pakistanis in every facet of life in the UK? Once upon a time Pakistan and India were joined…so obviously genes/race do NOT come into play with academic achievement in the UK at least. Pakistanis are very low in SES/Education attainment/Public perception, yet Indians outperform whites. LOL, for anyone to think genes are primarily involved is quite funny.

  43. dataset says: 
     
    Are people here aware that Indians far outperform Pakistanis in every facet of life in the UK? Once upon a time Pakistan and India were joined…so obviously genes/race do NOT come into play with academic achievement in the UK at least. Pakistanis are very low in SES/Education attainment/Public perception, yet Indians outperform whites. LOL, for anyone to think genes are primarily involved is quite funny. 
     
    Clearly, sitting there in your armchair, you are unable to understand that Indians and Pakistanis might have separated along the boundaries of the substructure that already existed in pre-partition India.

  44. Oh goodness, that is the obvious question anyone would have. But I have read enough genetics studies between Indians and Pakistanis/Afghanis/Iranis/Europeans to know they are not completely distinct, different, isolated peoples. I’m a PhD student, why wouldn’t I read such articles?

  45. According to Wikipedia:  
     
    Research from Durham University found A-levels were graded “more severely” in mathematics, sciences and modern languages than in humanities and arts. 
     
    It also goes on to imply that only in places like Singapore do they study 12 A levels. 
     
    Perhaps you could indulge me and provide some evidence that you got 8 A’s and let us know what subjects … evidence beats all arguments. 
     
    Being a PhD student is does not really mean that much. I tend to be more interested in things like papers. 
     
    As to substructure, it could be cognitive ability substructure which we are not yet able to discern on DNA tests. Hopefully, in a few years we will.

  46. Are people here aware that Indians far outperform Pakistanis in every facet of life in the UK? Once upon a time Pakistan and India were joined…so obviously genes/race do NOT come into play with academic achievement in the UK at least.  
     
    This isn’t obvious at all. The fact that two nations used to be joined doesn’t say anything about the genetic similarity or distance between the populations in those countries. Low caste Indians in southern India are different from high-caste Brahmins living in the northwest. 
     
    Even if Pakistanis and Indians in Britan come from the same race, that doesn’t mean genes don’t play a role in each group’s achievement. There are low and high achieving groups of white Americans (West Virginians and Northeasterners, for example). I am sure genes play a role in that, though both groups come from the same race.  
     
    I’m not saying the differences in achivement between Pakistanis and Indians *are* even partially caused by genetics. I know nothing about the issue. I just don’t think the idea can be ruled out based on your reasoning.

  47. My dear man, A’levels are not taken at age 16.  
     
    I see I am arguing with someone with limited knowledge of the British Education system. I think it is pretty useless to continue. Are there any Brits here?

  48. “I’m not saying the differences in achivement between Pakistanis and Indians *are* even partially caused by genetics. I know nothing about the issue. I just don’t think the idea can be ruled out based on your reasoning.” 
     
    Of course, I’m sorry for making such generalizations. I just wanted to say that looking at Pakistanis and Indians as being completely different (in the way Indians may be different from whites) strikes me as strange. Are they so different that we expect Indians to be smarter than Pakistanis by virtue of genes alone. I’m trying to imagine such a grant proposal getting funded easily. But I obviously don’t know for sure.

  49. My dear man, A’levels are not taken at age 16.  
     
    Who said they were. They would be taken at the same age as the HSC in Australia or the the Senior Highschool year in the US. Ages can vary for those. In the US AP exams can be taken pretty much for any of the four years of high school and the SATs or ACTs are usually taken in the first half of the senior year but can be taken in the junior year to get them out of the way. 
     
    My daughters were 16 or earlier when they took their SATs (or equivalent) and had a great many AP classes (with 4s and 5s to their credit) and started college when they were 17. 
     
    I am beginning to see who has limited knowledge and experience. 
     
    By the way, you still haven’t provided evidence for those 8 A’s (A-levels that is, were they taken when only P/PO/F were given?).

  50. I don’t know whether the difference in educational performance between Indians and Pakistanis in Britain has a genetic component. It might do, because (as has been pointed out by other comments) migration to Britain may have been differentially selective. But there could also be cultural explanations – e.g. Pakistanis have religious reasons for not integrating into western society to the same extent as Indians. I just don’t know. The Pakistani-Bangladeshi contrast may be more revealing, because both groups are Muslim and both are (anecdotally) from similar poor peasant backgrounds. Yet the Bangladeshis now seem to be doing better. 
     
    On the question of ‘black’ and ‘mixed race’ identity in Britain, it is my impression that if someone is known to have one white and one black parent (or is visibly obviously mixed, e.g. Thandie Newton) then white people in Britain would tend to describe them as mixed-race, but the individuals themselves might describe themselves either as black or as mixed-race according to their personal preference and politics. 
     
    Someone who is predominantly white in appearance would probably be described simply as white, even if there might be indications of non-white ancestry. E.g. the minor celebrity Jade Goody has one black (Jamaican?) grandparent, but I don’t think anyone regarded her as mixed-race until the ‘racial bullying’ row with Shilpa Shetty blew up, and then Jade’s defenders were keen to argue that she could not be racially prejudiced because she was part-black herself!

  51. The white supremacist and anti-Asian migration activist jailed in Oz for blowing up random Chinese restaurants had an Indonesian grandmother. 
     
    Some people couldn’t understand that.

  52. The white supremacist and anti-Asian migration activist jailed in Oz for blowing up random Chinese restaurants had an Indonesian grandmother. 
     
    Some people couldn’t understand that. 
     
    That kind of racial self-loathing is quite common. One of the leaders of the american neo-nazi movement hanged himself some decades ago when his secret was revealed: he was of jewish ancestry. 
     
    And it turns out that Nobel Laureate James Watson, who a few weeks ago made a fool of himself with anti-black racist comments, himself has a significant amount (16%) of recent african ancestry: 
     
    http://science-community.sciam.com/thread.jspa?threadID=300005381 
     
    Stefansson remarked that the ancestry test suggests that Watson had at least one African ancestor within two or three generations of his birth.

  53. Well Saul, 
     
    That would help explain Dr. Watson’s concern for the well-being of his fellow Africans living in Africa. 
     
    Not that I necessarily believe the report.

  54. I doubt there’s any valid comparison between James Watson and Jack van Tongeren.

  55. I wonder what extent the intermediate-higher tiered exam system has on these results. This is usually decided by the teacher and student in the second year. Taking the easy option will limit a student to a grade C maximum. 
     
    e.g. 
    http://www.gcsemathspastpapers.com/gcse-maths-past-papers-questions.htm

  56. I still cannot understand the Pakistani-Bangladeshi gap. Immigration patterns might explain the (narrowing) difference between Caribbeans and Africans. But the Pakistanis and Bangladeshis? 
     
    How about cousin marriage to explain at least a slice of it. 
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4442010.stm 
     
    “It is estimated that at least 55% of British Pakistanis are married to first cousins”

  57. Why are the Irish results higher than the White average. Is there any breakdown for Welsh, Scottish or English? 
     
    These are Irish people living in England and Wales. 
     
    The standard census form in the UK divides whites into three categories White-British, White-Irish and White-Other which I guess is how these results are being sliced (don’t have excel installed to check). 
     
    Scottish in Scotland will not be included in these results, they don’t even sit GCSEs. 
     
    The Northern Irish do sit GCSEs and they always outscore England and Wales by a sizable amount. In previous years that I checked they were scoring at about the same level as the Indians in England and Wales. One would presume that this is not due to genetics and that the Northern Irish would be “racially” similar to those in mainland Britain.

  58. Is cousin-marriage lower among Bangladeshis than Pakistanis (in Britain)? I thought it was very common in both groups, partly as a means of getting relatives through immigration controls.

  59. On the issue of the different achievements of Indians and Pakistanis in the UK, I think that immigration histories may have something to do with it. I understand that the original immigrants from Pakistan to Uk had been moved from their rural locations because of a dam project which flooded their farms. This would suggest lower intelligence following the usual rural/urban difference. Many Indians came to the UK as part of a betterment project: the opportunities were better, so long as the immigrants were carefully selected by their families as having the abilities and character necessary to put up with the stresses of migration. This would suggest more upwardly mobile and probably urban people, likely to be of higher intelligence. Migrations often attract very different sections of the bell curve, and this could be a partial explanation of the figures for recent African migrants, as upwardly mobile citizen who feel that Europe offers far better prospects than Africa at the moment. Frankly, although these data sets are interesting, I don’t think we can make too many genetic assumptions when there are so may cultural biasing factors which relate to immigration histories.

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