A new paper on rare Y chromosomal lineages around the Baltic, Phylogenetic history of patrilineages rare in northern and eastern Europe from large-scale re-sequencing of human Y-chromosomes:
…a considerable number of men in every population carry rare paternal lineages with estimated frequencies around 5%…Here we harness the power of massive re-sequencing of human Y chromosomes to identify previously unknown population-specific clusters among rare paternal lineages in NEE. We construct dated phylogenies for haplogroups E2-M215, J2-M172, G-M201 and Q-M242 on the basis of 421 (of them 282 novel) high-coverage chrY sequences collected from large-scale databases focusing on populations of NEE. Within these otherwise rare haplogroups we disclose lineages that began to radiate ~1–3 thousand years ago in Estonia and Sweden and reveal male phylogenetic patterns testifying of comparatively recent local demographic expansions. Conversely, haplogroup Q lineages bear evidence of ancient Siberian influence lingering in the modern paternal gene pool of northern Europe…
For context, over 90% of the Y chromosomal lineages in Northeastern Europe localize to just four haplogroups. R1a, R1b, I1, and N3 (TAT-C). R1a and R1b are associated with early Indo-Europeans. I1 is local to European hunter-gatherers, but probably got integrated early on into the Corded Ware lineages (it shows recent star phylogeny). N3 is associated with the male-mediated expansion of Siberians over the last 3,000 years and the expansion of Finnic languages in the region.
Taking a step back it’s rather shocking how high the frequency here is of these common lineages. Finland stands out: “the screened sample of 506 Finnish males we did
not detect any rare NEE lineages as almost all Finnish samples belong to hgs common among neighbouring populations – a probable reflection of either differing migration history or of demographic bottleneck(s) that have affected the Finnish population.” This is partly due to the overwhelming dominance of N3 in Finland. But, it is also a function of the fact that Neolithic agriculture never took root in Finland. The “Neolithic” ancestry is Finland is due to Corded Ware migration, and that varied depending on the Corded War population (some of the early Corded Ware in Estonia seem to have been pure Yamnaya).
G-M201 seem to be survival from European farmers. The low frequency of this lineage shows the great winnowing of older paternal lineages with the arrival of Corded Ware. Not totally clear about J2 in this paper, but that too might be a survival. The E2 lineage they adduce to hunter-gatherers associated with the Villabruna culture, because the coalescence with Middle Eastern lineages is too ancient (E has been found in Villabruna). Seems weak. But the result on Q is fascinating. I assumed it came with the Corded Ware or the Siberian migration. But it’s not really found in the Finns, and the Estonian lineages seem to be derived from the more common Swedish ones? The authors infer from this that it’s a hunter-gatherer (Scandinavian hunter-gatherer) survival, as this lineage has been found in Mesolithic European populations. I still think it might be due to Corded Ware, as Q is found in some of the Sintashta too. But it warrants further investigation.